And a Host, so white and holy, she unto the stone doth bring. Thou art dear, I will ne'er deny it, as Galoes to Annora fair; For death did she seek, and I think me that her seeking was not in vain, When she lost him, her well belovèd, and her knight in a joust was slain.'. Book IX. p. 252; and Book XVI. one of the continuators of Chrêtien. ', And above found he many a maiden: then her hands of dusky hue. For the arm that Gawain had wounded, when his spear smote the youthful king. The possession of the city of Nantes was a constant source of quarrel between the Counts of Anjou and their neighbours of Brittany. Such names And the Landgrave in naught gainsaid her, for belike did he bear a part. Then they led Parzival in triumph to their queen so fair and young. seems to have supported himself by his art, leading a wandering life at the principal Methinks it will then befall me as aforetime in Graharz land, They will tell me, without my question, how here with this folk it stands.'. 'Nay, nay, not so swift,' quoth his foeman, Duke Orilus of Lalande, 'Tho' o'erthrown, I am not so vanquished that I may not thy will withstand!'. the Now of true heart shall ye bemoan her who thus did sore anguish know. And from Assagog the vessels, and their cost might no man deny; And noble pages bare them, many costly bowls and fair. Then straightway he spake to Iwanet, 'My friend and companion dear. And by magic of colours mystic, a spell on his senses wrought. There seems a difference of opinion as to the It will anger full sore our mistress if by hap she the tale should hear: And ill-luck will it bring upon us that, ere ever the dawn of day, With us while his mother slumbered, to the woods he stole away!'. Without a prayer he won it—The steed from Monsalväsch came, Lähelein, in a joust he took it, when lifeless its rider fell. a precious stone, does not appear. Little good it forsooth hath brought me, ah! lover. And true is the tale I tell. And it filled him again with anguish for the death of his kinsman true. related by the German poet is far more graceful and poetical in treatment. Then Queen Herzeleide kissed him, and she sped swift his steed behind. Go thou, take with thee Gaschier, I would fain see my kinsman Kailet, do thou bring him unto me here!'. And many a soldier more. How Gawain took Meljanz of And the women they looked from the windows, and they gazed on the noble knight. But from joy sprang the crystal tear-drops that ran o'er their faces fair. And she fell aback in her anguish—And the knights spake, 'How hath this been? The twelfth might some wear, the payment and pledge of love holden light. Ere yet he may know the meaning flies out at the other ear. Work sorrow to her, and thro' Hatred his forces 'gainst me would bring. which Wolfram alludes most frequently we know the Erec and Iwein of Hartmann Than the heritage thou hast won thee, and the crown of an evil fame! 'Yestreen I came, and this morning I am lord o'er this goodly land! is the brother of Schionatulander, Siguné's love. many of which bear distinct traces of Romance or Provençal influence. My Burg hast thou seen, and thou knowest how lofty its towers and high. Or say shall the French queen's message to my shame and my sorrow turn? ', Yet Guinevere wrought so wisely Segramor was well-nigh fain. constantly employed throughout this poem to denote one who shatters many spears in serve they with the Grail?' 'But a gift King Arthur gave me—I spake as thou saidst before. Thus fear and unrest awoke him, and the sweat streamed from every limb; The daylight shone fair thro' the windows, yet no voice had called on him. To Iwanet's ear, and he heard them, by the city moat he stood, (To Queen Guinevere was he kinsman, and he did to her service good). a peasant nurse when his mother took charge of the infant Arthur. He dismounted, and bent o'er his master, and Gawain he knew his face. Then a space did she step towards him, and a kiss from her guest she prayed; And, herself, by the hand she took him and they sat them, both man and maid. Of the blood-stained For in this wise I read the vision,—in this snow that so spotless lies. ', And the lady she quoth in answer, 'I believe thee, Sir Knight, alway! Yet twofold I ween is the message, and His token some read amiss; For the world may buy, as it pleaseth, God's Wrath or His Love so great. That his lips were so slow to question when he sat by the mournful king. Setting Nor Kay's guilt had been unavengèd, if ere this I had seen thy face. And the knight of the Grail fell headlong down the side of a rocky dell. may be well to summarise here what we know of the reception and treatment of a guest in was composed in a foreign tongue; but, indeed, it is only within the Now guiltless in sooth was Gawain, 'twas but thro' his steeds and gold. Here, Lady, my pledge I bring thee, so my victor hath bidden me, Else my body to death were forfeit—I will do here as pleaseth thee! Then the truth knew Sir Parzival. Readers will doubtless remark He who to thine arms shall yield him take his pledge and let him go; Unless he such ill have wrought thee as sorrow of heart doth give, An my counsel thou fain wouldst follow, then in sooth shalt thou let him live. of the Grail story this knight plays a part only secondary to that of the chief hero There liveth a wondrous bird. Some were winners, and some were losers, and many sore shame had earned. Mourned sore for his woe, yet the foemen to part might she little dare. No more shall we be companions, together no more we'll eat; Be our marriage couch forgotten and the hours of communion sweet. And they bade them in fair white napkins the bread from the Grail to take. Book V. p. 152. Bare of tent-poles a greater number than the trees in Spessart's wood. Since he asked not his host of his sorrow and the woe that he saw him bear. For thus might it chance unto thee to win for thyself such fame, As shall make amends for thy sorrow, and God thee, as His knight, shall claim!'. in knightly duties is a traditional part of the story, and belongs to most of the versions. In earth's joys had she fullest share. J. German goddess of Love. With silken raiment goodly, and long were his robes and wide. For now is he born who henceforward this song for his own shall win. Then Parzival, e'en as he bade him, sprang lightly unto the ground; Humbly he stood before him, as he told how he folk had found. the book, with the other versions of the story in which they occur, will be given. p. 262, where the nature of the MS. in which Kiot found the story of When the simple lad and gallant would crave from her hand a steed. His helm he put off awhile, The heat thereto constrained him—'twas accursed heathen guile. solution appears to be that both Chrêtien and Wolfram were in possession of a common knights was to capture as many steeds and make as many prisoners as possible, the ransom Fourfold and from hence would bear them, in the pain should I find delight. For hunger their flesh had wasted and driven from every limb. And 'twas slashed in the sides and the centre with the spears that had thro' it passed; And he bade her to Obilot bear it, and glad was the little maid. So the hand of the Highest sendeth to Anfortas the end of woe, 'Thus we read in the Grail that our sorrow should come to an end that day, That the knight should come who the meaning of the grief that he saw should pray—. 'Now whither dost ride so swiftly?' every two lines rhyming, reim-paar. name of his lady-love is given in Book VII. Then the squire he spake unto Gawain, 'Thy leave I, Sir Knight, would pray,', And he turned him again to his master—What should Gawain do alway. For some cunning wile of woman, that her boy from his will be brought. No man there whose lips spake falsehood. and Lancelot. So, lest I yet more should suffer, I pray you, my servants dear, That ye speak no word of knighthood, lest my son perchance should hear!'. But now to his door hath ridden one who maketh amends for all, And gladness no more shall fly him, but it seeketh his palace hall!'. Forthwith, as the Mass was ended, came Arthur the noble king. With the life of men, and to-morrow must they mourn who rejoice to-day! For he who, with words untamèd, is fain to avenge his wrong. 'Father, I never needed thy help as I do to-day, Now give me I pray thy counsel, for the knight he hath said me yea.'. And I ween, for her maiden favours, but seldom would heroes fight! And the queen she her love shall proffer'—His wrath must the squire abide. 'Gainst her beauty who sat beside him, in whom God no wish forgot. Tourney. From the twain who lay warm beneath it, and slumbered a slumber deep. And blessèd shall be the mother whose child doth the summons hear. But she went, the fair and gentle, from her bath to her couch straightway. Such wailing for my departing! that it is the rejected lover of this queen whom Kunnewaaré eventually marries. And I mourn for that gentle lady, her body, her folk, her land. And skilled were they all in battle; with Klamidé they hither sped. Who spake with the maids this wine-cup the signal of parting gave. alas! And in sooth thou art wondrous like him who once o'er the Grail did reign, Say, what is thy race? That Brandigan's gallant monarch now claimeth me as his own. Those kingdoms twain and their cities, Kingrivals and Kanvoleis. From brave Heuteger's spear the splinters flew high thro' the summer air, But his foeman so well withstood him that he thrust him from off his steed. And they did gallant deeds of knighthood—nor otherwise might it be. Too much must I deem the honour! Longfellow's version of it in The Golden Legend. salvation. To every knight in order, fair vessels of wroughten gold, And four knights set them on the tables, and with each ye a steward might see. Pelrapär shalt thou find well guarded 'gainst thyself and thine armies twain. 'Gainst the poison of Aspis, Elkontius, of Liseis, and Ecidemon. gives the most accurate idea of Wolfram's style; San Marte has allowed Then spake this flower of all knighthood, 'Say, boy, did they pass thy way? She stretched her limbs in her slumber, and moaned in her grief alway, And she cried aloud on her people; and many a maid sat by. Bold when the knight would battle, yet its speed could he check at will. He feasted, the king, with his vassals whose hearts never falsehood knew. But short time back—They called him the Landgrave Kingrimursel. ', 'In a joust, Sir Host, did I win it, when I rode from Siguné's cell. And his heart was fain for the combat; and out spake the hero fair, 'Now I pledge me upon mine honour that no man within this wall. nay! Of the wedding of Gamuret and Queen Herzeleide and their To whose courtesy naught was lacking since Gurnemanz' side he sought, And his words had from folly freed him; and had bidden him questions spare. And abide here, so long as shall please thee, if thy journey shall brook delay. Strife giveth whereon to trample! a defence of his attitude towards women; certainly the lines 12-15 presuppose certain seems to be that the Parzival was written within the first fifteen years Then thou shalt with us, man and woman, this night-tide our sorrow share, Thou shalt serve him thereby; and I'll tell thee the want we perforce must bear. Rev. For our lifetime hast thou enriched us.' His child with the Burg-grave's daughter; with rings did the maidens play. Peredur, but the messenger is unnamed, or simply termed 'The Loathly Damsel.' But before the gates 'neath the castle, that knight doth his charger stay. And a goodly camp had he marked out ere his lord to the field should ride. Chrêtien calls him 'Le Desreè' (uncurbed, impetuous). Or Gamuret, as he came to Kanvoleis, as this venture erewhile did tell. That his daughter, so true a lady, so faithless a son must bear. To this maid; Obilot, her sister; and the elder maid, I ween, Hath wrought ill, for she, and none other, the cause of this strife hath been.'. Many thousand hearts hath he wounded—'Twas murder base, abhorred. 'To this knight shalt thou do all honour, and a kiss from his lips shalt take, With Good Fortune for guide he fareth! pp. An wide were the field or narrow, yet Sir Liddamus, I know well. Anew from my sister favour, and forgiveness for this my sin. For better would it befit him unarmèd this day to greet. Also p. 133, line 146. And as fitted the Holy Season the Altar was stripped and bare; And the shrine—Parzival must know it, 'twas the spot where he once did swear. And as Gamuret sat before her his hand did she clasp again. Thy fame it shall gain new lustre, since I might not thy power withstand. close connection with the Grail, which the fully developed Christian legend has given to If my presence doth shame thine honour, then from hence will I swiftly flee.'. For his gallant life lay forfeit, a pledge in stern Death's cold hand, And to Death he needs must yield him—In grief o'er his coming end. The blows perforce must wound me—He who lusted thereto might see. And her senses forsook the queen. So rode the gallant hero, in stately guise and meet; Ten pack-horses heavy-laden they led first adown the street. A prince doth each portal hold, And forth from the gate he sallies, with his banners and warriors bold.'. And he quoth, 'So the years of my lifetime a harvest of folly bear. blames those who depart from the traditional form of the story, and at the end of his or schinnelier. By his knighthood and love as a brother he besought him right earnestly; Quoth Gawain, 'Now in sooth, my brother, too wise shall I surely be. Page 265, line 465—'The altar and shrine.' Bavaria as in all probability the place of his birth, as it certainly was He was hidden from deeds of knighthood, till his youth it waxed bold and strong. It is curious to note that Then out spake the prince so courteous, 'An it seemeth not ill to thee, Fain am I to know thy dwelling, and from whence thou art come to me?'. How wrought the devil such folly, on a folk so wise, of old? And of, If token perchance she beareth, thou wilt leave to the maid her ring—. Which the Sibyl unto Æneas as a shield 'gainst Hell's dangers brought. I have fought, and a prince hath suffered, for joust he toward me sped, But my spear-point so sorely smote him that he lay there before me, dead! this it is impossible to discuss with any fulness the fascinating problems which afford an interesting glimpse of the manners and customs of a bygone age. Gleamed golden, and when he saw it the lad to her side did spring; For had not his mother told him such jewels were the guerdon fair. Cloth. Then he sped as a deer, joy's vassal I ween was the gallant king! by Heaven, and, with special exceptions, vowed to celibacy, seems intended as a contrast And ever their death doth grieve me, and sorrow from love shall grow, And never henceforth as my husband a man do I think to know.'. How these heroes, so rich in courage, must in need and in scarceness live, For so did the manhood bid them, to their need shall ye pity give—, For their life stood in pledge, might He free it in Whose Hand all power shall be!—. So loud rose the angry tumult none hearkened her words of peace. Cf. To their marriage couch they bade them, 'twas the will both of king and queen—. xxiv, 497 pages. How Queen Kondwiramur And the food it swiftly vanished, as if one would a manger fill! And her form it was fair to look on, and both riches had she and youth, And more than too much her gladness! Would ye know the name they called her? Kay at some length. And where-e'er one would ride beside her on that side had ye found her bare. he speaks as if And then thro' the lofty palace was weeping and wailing sore. If the sun shineth hot as in August? boises. Then the boy grasped his javelin firmly and thought what the sound might be; 'Perchance 'tis the devil cometh! Led hither their brother's daughter who as queen o'er this land did reign: (For the love of God their harness, shield, and sword, had they put away, These princes true and stalwart, fair of face tho' their hair was grey.). Tho' couch he had found, I think me, he slumbered not over well. where the principal difficulties lie. Nor stooped to the lure unwilling, nor fled from my master's face. ), But enough of my lamentation, once more ye the tale shall hear. For I praise but a woman's virtue, as I see, and shall surely know. Then Assagog's noble princes took the Scotch Duke, proud Heuteger. close connection with the main thread of the legend. Friedebrand of Scotland and Heuteger, the source of these is doubtful, some occur in Cf. One of the most striking peculiarities of this version of the Perceval legend consists Nineveh did he found—Now an insult and a shame vexed them bitterly. ages. But Parzival cried, 'Woe is me! And on either foot the stirrups with golden bells rang true. be made whole by the achiever of the Quest. The reference to Æneas and the Sibyl is from the Æneid of Heinrich Who gave counsel unto King Gunther, ere yet to the Huns he hied. On her breast, the wingèd dragon that forth from her body sprung, That spread its wings and left her: in a dream was it all foretold, Ere yet the sorrowing mother the babe to her breast did hold!'. Belakané in sable fashioned,—Since against us they came in might. For flesh and bone were wearied, and sorrow of heart they bore. And told to Gawain the tidings, and whence all this woe did wake. was an animal greatly feared by snakes, perhaps to the land of the Waleis; of the sorrow of Herzeleide; and of the birth By his hand the host then took him, and forth from his chamber led. To ride awhile with the hero; and he wended a woodland way. That he craved not thro' need their shelter; he knew naught of their poor estate. pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1120. woe unto thee, Monsalväsch, thou dwelling and goal of grief, Since no man hath pity on thee, or bringeth thy woe relief!'. (marriage feast of Gawain and Orgeluse) there would be dancing, otherwise the time seems Yet else was she fair to look on, as a woman should be, I ween. Thro' her my shield have I won me, else perchance I had worn it not. And her knights and maidens round her they gazed and they gazed again. ', Then to Parzival they betook them, and they found that a wound he bare. And straight to the host they stepped them, and they bowed their fair heads low. And they who would fame win from him, for such thinking they paid full dear—. And gazed in startled wonder and wrath as beseemed her well; 'Who is it, who thus would shame me? What had passed since we left the story—So the host to the town drew near. And all deemed it good, the counsel, so they rode to the royal hall. He defendeth afar his kingdom—A king, one Hernant by name. which would express what was meant with equal brevity and clearness.) The legend of the pelican is well known, and the first part of the passage referring to And she went as her steps were guided by sorrow and bitter wrong. He would rede him well of the Offering—How to sign himself with the Cross. Then the knight to his lady led him, as she sat in her beauty's glow. Annora is the same name as Eleanor. And from many lands had they ridden who with brave hands brave deeds had done. Then the elder son he summoned the princes from out his land. to grasp the meaning of this parable, which is too swift and subtle for their comprehension. And, greeting, he asked him tidings, who was lord of this goodly host? Was the costly pfellel woven that for surcoat and coat he ware. A common incident of Tho' vanquished, yet not dishonoured, must they ever the hero hold! And yet know I a deeper sorrow and I strive for a higher prize. Cf. of King Arthur. And have asked of his bitter sorrow, on whom God hath a wonder sped, Now thou livest, and yet I tell thee to bliss art thou henceforth dead!'. How the Burgers defended And he found them, both man and maiden, heavy and sad at heart, As he rode nigh unto the circle; hear ye how he bare his part—. But from shame may Gawain ne'er free him, if a knight of the Table Round. And he braced himself as a falcon that plumeth its wings for flight. outline of his life. story being already fixed before the episode was assimilated, the heroine is passed on to a The confusion of the Red Knight with the hero's own personal Hereafter, when he won wisdom, he scarcely such deed had wrought! For he bade him in Worms abide still, where was plenty and e'en to spare, And content his soul with the flesh-pots and the riches of Rhineland fare! And the younger must bear her mocking—then she spake, 'Yet I trust my knight. Nor the host's knight might keep his saddle, but prone on the sward he fell. An I now had thy counsel followed, this even had seen me glad; Now give me thine aid Count Scherules, for the trust that I ever had, In thy faith, with this knight my captor, and with him my second sire, Duke Lippaut—for well I think me they will do as thou shalt require—, Yea, pray them to show me favour, for friends had we been to-day, Had not Obie such jest played on me as no maiden I ween should play! This passage to line 398 is Her maidenhood fled for ever! And straightway his eyes beheld them, full many a lady bright. Blood drops on the snow and love-trance And one of them was King Kailet; and he looked upon Gamuret, And he saw him sit heavy-hearted, and he spake, 'Dost thou sorrow yet, For all men they own thy valour; Herzeleide and kingdoms twain. And like to a bridge her message, that sorrow o'er joy had crossed. The various remedies tried 'Gainst the blood-drops, that ruddy-gleaming, glow crimson beneath mine eyes. Sir Knight, sure must work thee sorrow, since baptized thou shalt surely be! When the sword bridge he crossed to battle—Her captivity pleased him ill. tradition of the origin of the Grail-myth. Eidegast, he is there from Logrois, and the King Brandelidelein. in other versions of the Perceval legend, but in none does she play so important a part as Then down he sprang from his charger as one who his goal hath found. With short green grass was it covered, so that coward hearts waxed bold, And won afresh high courage; and the trees did their buds unfold, In the soft sweet air of the May-tide, and he came of the fairy race. Book IV. And full oft with a hornèd trophy, at even he hied him back. By Karnant, and much fame and honour the blade to its lord did bring! Tho' Klamidé deemed that the foemen from the city the truce would break. Ne'er knew he a truer lady whose heart was from falsehood free, She forgat not what 'seemed a woman, and with her as comrades good. (Yea, in part of our German kingdom, as ye oft shall have heard men say), Whoever might rule that country, 'twas the law, and none thought it shame, ('Tis the truth and no lie I tell ye) that the elder son might claim. So rode they, the one with the other, the Waleis and Knight Gawain. This tale, methinks that scarcely for truth I the words might hold, That thou in one day hadst ridden a journey that scarce in twain. And if I yet further pray ye this story strange to heed. Geoffrey, and Guy. Yet sorrow it fast doth bind me, and the cause would I tell to thee. From the straight line thou erst must draw it, ere the shaft to its goal may wing. And they came, these two princesses, in raiment wondrous fair. apparently a variant of Avalon. Then Parzival made him answer—In his folly he spake straightway. Love's magic, of senses robbed him—Then his charger to halt Kay brought; And he spake to the gallant Waleis, 'Sir Knight, since thou thus our king. [Pg 303] For ever 'twas told unto me that hermit, or man, or maid. and steadfast faith and truth, as imaged in the contrast between darkness and light, For Maid Obilot's sake with the townsfolk a knight valiant deeds had dared; Without, a Red Knight fought bravely, and the fame 'twixt those two was shared. the blow was well aimed, and delivered with sufficient force, the knight was thrown backward evidently looks upon Gawain as the typical Arthurian knight, the pride and glory of the The Methinks that thy lord should have spared thee for the sake of thy face so fair! To fly and to chase as shall fit him, to shun and to seek alway. And she charged them all, by the service which she as their queen might claim. the apparent injustice of God's dealings with men, and finally fighting an important feature. And so strong were the towers and the palace that its folk they had held the hall. 'Tis the fault of him of the Anchor! Now give me, I pray, your counsel, for 'gainst death was no other shield, But to swear as my victor bade me, and, as knight, to a knight to yield!'.